A UCLA professor allows his students to cheat on his game theory exam, he even allowed bribery without reporting it to the dean (although he would not actually accept the bribes). Taking a flipped classroom one step further, this professor decided to flip his test. He gave his students oneContinue Reading +
Posted on April 17th, 2012 by David Coffey
All too often, I run into teachers (both preservice and inservice) lamenting that kids are using calculators to compute something simple, like 6 x 7. These teachers express their frustration by threatening to not let kids use any calculators until the kids prove that they know their facts. And there will be no calculators for any simple computations. I understand this thinking but I am not sure it will achieve the desired result – wise calculator use (i.e. phronesis).
Problem is, if teachers are the ones deciding when their students can or cannot use calculators, then students are not able to practice this critical-thinking skill for themselves. Consequently, whenever a calculator is available in the future it can be used because that was what the students learned in school. As an alternative to controlling calculator use, I suggest a couple of activities that can help students to decide for themselves when it is appropriate to reach for the calculator.
The first activity comes from the article, John Henry – The Steel Driving Man. This article suggests several different experiments involving routines that can be completed by human or mechanical effort (eg: sharpening pencils). Students are asked to predict which method will take longer, gather data, and compare the results using box-plots.
The experiment I am most interested in involves computing multiplication facts with and without a calculator. I give pairs of students four worksheets like the one shown below.
Each of the four worksheets is different. As one student completes the worksheet, the other one uses a stop watch to time the effort (errors add an extra five seconds to total time). This is repeated until each student completes two sheets – using the calculator for one but not the other. Classroom data are gathered and typically show that the students complete the worksheets quicker without a calculator. Discussing the results can provide students with an opportunity to reflect on whether or not it is efficient to use a calculator for basic facts. In the few cases when it is faster to use a calculator, the issue is usually that the student has a lot of wrong answers when computing without a calculator. Teachers must decide an appropriate course of action in these instances.
A second activity that I use to develop students’ wise use of calculators involves a worksheet of multi-digit multiplication items. Instead of assigning the entire worksheet, I ask students to pick four items to compute without a calculator, four items to estimate, and four items to use a calculator on. The students are also expected to explain why they selected the approach to use with each item.
Calculator phronesis, the wise use of calculators, requires opportunities for students to experience activities that involve metacognitive aspects. We teachers will not always be there to guide students’ choices, but this is not to suggest that we do not have a responsibility to help students to develop this ability. It is my hope that through these classroom experiences, students will be able to ask and answer for themselves the question, “When is it okay to use a calculator?”